Fiscal Policy Paper Essay

All the people in the United States are effected by the fiscal policies. Team C will address the how and why the U. S. budget deficits, budget surpluses and debt effect different individuals and institutions. There are a wide array of individuals effected by fiscal policy, which include tax payers, future Social Security and Medicaid users will be effected. The unemployed individuals and University of Phoenix students will be effected by fiscal policy. The U. S. financial reputation , an exporter, and importer, and effects of the GDP will also be covered about the effects of the U. S fiscal policy. Effects on Tax Payers

The U. S. budget deficits can affect tax payers in a negative aspect by subjecting the tax payers to increased taxes within the country to offset the deficit. This increase could be aimed at the middle and lower class citizens, which may cause financial difficulties. Also the budget deficit does impose interest costs on tax payers, meaning that the national savings totals are lower and this decreases the amount of private investing (Ackerman 2004). This higher interest cost will have a direct affect on the trade deficit, which will cause Americans to become even more dependent on exports for their consumer needs. The U. S. udget surpluses would affect tax payers in a positive aspect by refunding tax payers any previous overpayment of taxes. This could also decrease income taxes that are being paid by tax payers, since the surplus will increase national savings. Another benefit from a surplus is that it will stimulate investing by offering lower interest rates, which would increase tax payers savings when filing taxes (Hall 2012). For example: new mortgages would offer interest write-offs on personal tax returns. The U. S. budget debt affects the tax payers in several different areas: higher taxes, reduced benefits & programs, and higher interest rates.

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The U. S government cannot sustain the economic level of owing more than they are receiving, meaning the taxes from tax payers would increase to pay down the debt. The other option for shortening the debt is to limit spending, which means the programs and benefits could be reduced. The interest rates may rise due to a decrease in the purchase of Treasury bonds from foreign investors (NDT 2012). Effects on future Social Security and Medicare user The United States Budget Deficit is only going to hurt the future Social Security and Medicare Users if the deficit does not reduce. Over spending is going to lead to no money in these accounts.

The retirement age will continue to go up as long as there is no money to support the aging Americans. The Budget Surplus however would help Social Security and Medicare users as money increased and the deficit decreased. Effects on Unemployed Individuals The U. S. budget deficits affect unemployed individuals directly as the higher the deficit, the higher the unemployment. The reverse is also true, by lowering the deficit and investing in programs that will stimulate growth, the unemployed individuals are more likely to find work and contribute to paying off the deficit (Ginsburg 2009).

The U. S. budget surplus would positively affect unemployed individuals because this would allocate more funds to be used in further economic development, such as increasing the support to infrastructure improvements. This increase in the allocation of funds to support an infrastructure improvement would lower unemployment which would increase expansion (Hall 2012). The U. S budget debt affects unemployed people directly but the government has set up debt management programs to assist the unemployed people on getting back on the correct financial track.

These programs include: the making home affordable program, VA debt management program and the department of education assistance program. The Making Home Affordable program is funded by the government and is available for unemployed people who are at risk of losing their homes. The VA debt Management program offers assistance for Veterans through counseling, VA home loan partial forgiveness and debt relief assistance. The Department of Education offers an income based repayment option to assist unemployed individuals in repaying their student loans, until they are financially secure to pay the required minimum payments (Worksham 2012).

Effects on University of Phoenix Students University of Phoenix students along with other college students are affected by budget deficits, budget surpluses, and debt. These students are affected in different ways because of the economy. Budget deficit occurs when government expenditures exceed government revenues. Debt is the accumulated deficits less accumulated surpluses (Colander, 2010). Congress takes money from student loan programs when there is a shortage and redistribute for other purposes (Nelson, 2011).

Earlier this year President Obama disclosed the proposed budget for the year and the area that will be affected is the Federal Pell Grant Program (Quinn II, 2011). The Pell Grant is awarded to students to help pay for college expenses and does not have to be paid back. A budget surplus would enable the students to continue receiving help from the government because there would be an excess amount of funds to distribute out. Effects on the United States’ financial reputation on an international level Budget deficits, budget surpluses, and debt affect the United States financial reputation internationally.

The international budget deficit is in question because of the United States economy. The United States is experiencing fiscal challenging because of outstanding debts owed to other countries. The U. S. is borrowing and selling off assets to these countries that cause more debt. To reduce the debt with these countries the US need to run small budget surpluses and this can be accomplished by cutting spending and increasing the revenue (Huntley, 2010). Effects on Domestic Automotive Manufacturing (exporter) Budget Deficit When expansionary policies are used the result is improvement in the economy because of an increase in available cash.

This results in a net decrease in exports because it is more profitable to sell cars domestically than to export them. The severity of the recession and resulting contraction of the economy however has forced American car manufactures to increase their comparative advantage resulting in improved competitiveness in current and growing automotive markets, such as China and India (Colander, 2010). The result of this increase in efficiency will be the ability to compete with foreign companies increasing exports to established and new markets resulting in a more profitable post-recession automotive industry (Colander, 2010).

Budget Surplus A budget surplus occurs when there are more funds coming into the government than going out. A healthy economy operating at its potential output will result in increases in individual income (Colander, 2010). However, an economy producing at its optimal output will result in the governments implementing contractionary fiscal policies to fight inflation. As less cash becomes available consumers will tend to purchase lower priced imports and domestic car manufactures will export more cars because it is more profitable to do so.

As the economy contracts domestic manufactures will increase their comparative advantage to compete internationally (Colander, 2010). Debt The United States debt is at record levels. Currently there are initiatives for fiscal policy to reduce the debt. Less government spending in a recession could have a detrimental effect on the United States’ current economic recovery including the health of automotive manufacturers, thus more incentive for domestic manufacturers to export cars. However, the long-term the effects of a reduction of interest payments to repay that debt would mean less of a tax burden in the future.

For the short term domestic car sales may suffer increasing the incentive for international sales in growing markets. The long-term effects would mean less taxes and higher profits for car companies tomorrow (Colander, 2010). Effects on an Italian Clothing Company (Importer). Budget Deficit Expansionary polices, such as those incorporated into an economy during a recession, have positive effects for imports. Increasing the money supply will increase an American consumer’s option to purchase more foreign goods such as Italian clothing (Colander, 2010). Budget Surplus

Contractionary policies, such as those that may occur in an economy operating at its productive capacity will have a negative effect on the purchase or Italian clothing. Levels of trade with foreign countries will decrease from the peak productive period. Debt Initiatives to pay-down the United States debt could have a negative effect on the economy, thus reducing the demand for Italian clothing. However, if efforts to lower the debt are successful there will be less tax burden on consumers in the future leading to more opportunities for foreign trade. Effects on GDP

The United States Deficit affects the GDP when the deficit causes companies to move their business over sees. This happens when minimum wage goes up to get more money flowing into the government. The Surplus could be used to help support United States companies that produce and employ inside the United States. The United States debt and or deficit affects individuals and the future of Federal Government programs. These programs could be student loans to Medicare. The Government cannot spend trillions of dollars they don’t have and still function the way American needs to function.

Federal Grants help students continue their education without them individuals cannot continue their education because they would not be able to afford it on their own. In conclusion, the wide array of individuals are affected by U. S. budget deficits, budget surpluses, and debt.

References

Ackerman, S. (Nov/Dec 2004). The Budget Deficits Bigger Brother. Retrieved from:www. fair. org/index. php? page=3562 Colander, D. C. (2010). Macroeconomics (8th ed. ). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill/Irwin. Ginsburg, H. (2009) National Jobs or All Coalition: Increasing Unemployment Increases the Deficit. Reducing Unemployment Reduces the Deficit. Retrieved from url:www. njfac. org/us1. htm Hall, S. (2012) How does the government surplus affect the economy? Retrieved from url: www. ehow. com/about_6193482_government-budget-surplus-affect-economy_. html Huntley, J. (2010). Federal Debt and the Risk of a Financial Crisis. Retrieved from http://www. cbo. gov/publication/25094 NDT (2012) No Debt Today: How the National Debt Affects You. Retrieved from url: www. nodebttoday. om/how-national-debt-affects-you. php Nelson, L. A. (2011). Inside Higher ED. Retrieved from http://www. insidehighered. com/news/2011/07/18/increased_student_loan_interest_rates_to_reduce_deficit_and_probably_not_expand_grants Quinn II, C. (2011), THE FAMUAN. Retrieved fromhttp://www. thefamuanonline. com/news/obama-s-budget-cuts-college-student-grants-1. 2478105 Worksham, R. (2012) Government Debt Relief Programs for the Unemployed. Retrieved from iurl:www. ehow. com/list_7330593_government-debt-relief-prgorams-unemployed. html