Functions of Managements
Management is an action of getting people together to accomplish a particular goal. And for running the organization in a smooth way and to achieve the desired targets, proper management in that respective organization is very necessary. It is the job of the manager to maintain an internal atmosphere. Traditionally the term “Management” is associated with the activities involved in four major general functions. Whatever job the manager has to perform is known as the functions of the management. There are four major functions of the management.
1. Planning 2.organizing, 3.leading, and 4.controlling. All these four major functions of management are related to each other and they are mutually supporting.
Planning is the first major function in the process of management. The success or the failure of any manager is related with this function. There are some goals of every organization and they are supposed to accomplish within the shortest time span and for achieving the goals of the organizational planning is must. Planning includes making the proper decision for the successful accomplishment of the target. This function is followed by the managers to make the proper plan for the future. Planning is done by the managers at every level of the organization. Through their plans managers outline what exactly the business should do to be successful. Organizational plans are the basic tools to prepare for and to deal with the changes in the organizational environment. Planning is the function which facilitates the process of decision making and to avoid the risk which would be harmful to the company’s existence and growth.
After the organization or the business develops, the second step is to design and develop an organization that will be able to complete the objectives. Thus the purpose of organizing process is to create a structure of work and authority relationship. A good manager is expected to know his subordinates and their capability and to organize the best resources among them for the prosperity of the organization. According to Henry Fayol in addition to planning and manufacturing process management must also make certain and necessary resources e.g. raw material, personnel come together at the appropriate time and production. In the process of organizing the managers are supposed to do the major things which comprises of staffing the work division, arranging the proper training for the employees, using the resources for the benefit of the company and organizing the group into a productive team.
Leading sometimes is called directing or motivating. It consists of influencing the members of the organization to perform in ways that accomplish the organizational objectives. The purpose of this function is to guide human behavior towards completing the organizational goals and for that the effective leadership is valuable. The quality of leadership is a significant point in the success of any organization. According to Allen, “A leader can be a manager, but a manager is not necessarily a leader.”  An ideal leader always influences his subordinate and motivates them for the caliber work and for achieving the targets of the organization. Leadership involves the characteristics of the managerial position that includes excellent communication and a close rapport with the team members. The ideal leaders should have a day today contact with the workers or the subordinate with a good communication. The manager should always take a lead to solve the problems within the department.
According to Henry Fayol “Control of an undertaking consists of seeing that everything is being carried out in accordance with the plan which has been adopted, the orders which have been given, and the principles which have been laid down. Its objective is to point out mistakes in order that they may be rectified and prevented from recurring.” The process of controlling is there to check whether the plans are being implemented in a proper manner. According to Gemmy Allen, Controlling is the final link in the functional chain of management activities and brings the functions of management cycle full circle.’ It is the managers who are supposed to be the whole and sole responsible person for the performance of his subordinates. In the process of controlling the standards of people’s performance and processes are communicated. Controls are placed on accomplishing the daily responsibility and they play a vital role in the success of any business or organization.
Thus these four functions must be implemented in every organization for the effective work as these reappear throughout the organization and are highly incorporated.
 (Allen, G. (1998). In Supervision. Retrieved May 27, 2007, from http://ollie.dcccd.edu/mgmt1374/contents.html)
 Fayol Henry (1949). General and Industrial Management. New York: Pitman Publishing, 107-109.