Impact Mitigation Essay

HES4810 IMPACT MITIGATION MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT 03 DLAMINI ZANELE ZAKHE Student no: 46407413 Lecture: Mrs Unine van den Berg 25 September 2012 Question 1. 1 Table of contentsPage 1. 1. 1 Purpose activity4 1. 1. 2 Environmental Management Programme (EMPr) administration4 1. 1. 3 Objectives of the EMPr4 1. 1. 4 Roles and responsibilities4 1. 1. 5 EMPr for housing complex6 1. 1. 6 References17 ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMME REPORT FOR NDABAZIYADILIKA HOUSING DEVELOPMENT eTHEKWINI MUNICIPALITY Prepared by Khabzakhe Environmental Services September 2012 Khabzakhe Environmental Services (Pty) ltd P. O. Box A233 West Wing 7966 South Africa

Tel/Fax: +27217829553 Email: [email protected] co. za AUTHOR Zakhe Dlamini: Environmental Management Specialist Certification: Certified by the Environmental Assessment Practioners of South Africa (EAPSA) Tertiary Education: University of South Africa Msc Environmental Science Management Experience: 2008-present: Environmental Consultant for Khabza Environmental Services 1. 1. 1 Proposed Activity The Development of a new housing complex which has 296 housing sites. Will approximately 35. 68 ha of land located near the Vaalriver. The proposed housing units will be serviced with electricity, potable water, and waterborne sewage and tarred road. . 1. 2 Environmental Management Programme (EMPr) Administration Copies of this EMPr shall be kept at the site office and will be distributed to all senior contract personnel. All senior personnel shall be required to familiarise themselves with the contents of this document. All senior personnel will also be required to sign a register confirming the understanding of the document. 1. 1. 3 Objectives of the EMPr * To provide measures to mitigate and manage construction, operation and decommissioning activities in order to minimize potential negative impacts on the surrounding environment.

This is achieved by * Assigning environmental impact responsibilities to key personnel * Manage and auditing the specified action plans and * Managing stakeholder involvement. Integrated Environmental Management Principles (IEM) has been used as a foundation for the development of this EMPr and must be strictly applied during its implementation. The Environmental Management Programme (EMPr) serves as a standalone document to be disseminated to and used by the contractor and other stakeholders involved in the construction phase of the proposed housing development.

It typically forms the basis for monitoring compliance with the Environmental Authorisation (EA) during the construction and operational phase (www. em. com/PageFiles/5438/Burgan_EMP_02TM. pdffile). 1. 1. 4 Roles and Responsibilities The implementation of this EMPr requires involvement of several stakeholders, each fulfilling a different but vital role to ensure sound environmental management; the stakeholders are discussed below. Applicant: eThekwini municipality are responsible for the following; * Ensuring that the engineer and contractors comply with the approved EMPr.

Ensuring compliance with the provisions for duty of care and remediation of damage on accordance with section 28 of the National Environmental Management Act and its obligations regarding the control of emergency incidents in terms of section 30 of NEMA. * Notifying the DAEARD of any incident as defined in subsection 30(1) (a) of NEMA (www. KwiKwap. co. za/… /). Project Managers- the engineer is responsible for * Appointing the appropriately qualified contractor to co-ordinate, supervise and expedite different action plans. Ensuring adherence to the DAEARD conditions of authorization and any other laws and standards relevant to the construction of the facility * Ensuring all elements of the work undertaken are properly and competently directed, guided and executed at appointed stages of the project. * Ensuring the adherence to statutory safety, health and environment SHE standards and ensuring the construction activities comply with the EMPr. * Monitoring the site on a daily basis to ensure compliance. Overall responsibility and accountability for the site during the construction phase * Avoiding and/or mitigating adverse impacts on the environment by the appropriate design and construction * Ensuring transparency in their operation and environmental management of the site * Managing the contractors compliance and ensure documentation management * Ensuring that the contractor has a copy of the EMPR and all agreed method statements (www. KwiKwap. co. za/… /). Contractors * Managing and operating their activities with due care and diligence. Complying with all elements of the EMPr. * Ensuring that stakeholders interest is reported to the ECO * Maintaining relevant documentation for review by the ECO (www. KwiKwap. co. za/… /). ECO (Environmental Control Officer) * Determining the conformance of the site with the EMPr criteria and compliance with the conditions of the EMPr * Identification of possible areas of improvement during construction * Undertaking ongoing monitoring of the construction site through regular site visits and record key findings. This includes photographic monitoring of the construction site.

The frequency of these visits will be determined by the stage of the project. * Advising the proper manager and the contractors on environmental matters during construction phase of the development. * Monitoring implementation of the EMPr by the contractor * Advising the project manager on actions or issues impacting on the environment and provide appropriate recommendations to address and rectify these matters. * Monitor compliance with the EA (www. KwiKwap. co. za/… /). 1. 1. 5 Environmental Management Programme (EMPr) (figure 1) | | Air Quality| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time Period| Mon Std. Compliance| Planning | Identify dust as an impact| Identify mitigation measure, contractor must be sure that the necessary equipment is in place to control dust generated| Identify frequency| The site will be monitored daily| Reparation| Construction | Dust emissions due to movement of construction vehicles and transportation of loads of soil material| Construction vehicles shall comply with speed limits and haul distances shall be minimized. Material loads suitable covered and secured transportation. | Dust suppression once a day at 10. 00a. m and twice a day if it is windy(10. 0a. m +15. 00)| Dust suppressed at 10. 00a. m and none visible in air. All constructive areas are wet| Notice of non compliance of contractor by ECO| Operation| Dust from gravel roads| Construction of tarred roads. A programme about dust control shall be implemented. Water spraying vehicles shall be used to spray the dust| Daily monitoring, suppression of dust once a day at 10. 00a. m and twice if it is windy (10. 00a. m +15. 00)| Dust roads and areas creating dust are wet. Complaints register for affected persons to record complaints regarding excessive dust levels. Must comply with air quality requirements, compliance against the EMPr must be monitored on a monthly basis by the ECO. | Closure| Dust emissions due to closure and rehabilitation of roads unneeded| Roads ripped or ploughed and necessary appropriately fertilised to ensure the re-growth of vegetation| Once every 3 months| Re-vegetation maintenance plan conducted| Reparation | | | Loss of Plant life| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time period| Mon Std| Compliance | Planning | Identifying clearing of vegetation as an impact| Identifying indigenous and red data species. Analysing whether the species would be adversely affected by the project.

Determining a suitable habitat within project vicinity for threatened indigenous plants and red data species (buffer zone). Identifying how clearing materials will be disposed of. | Site preparation| Buffered zones clearly demarcated with red tape. ECO is responsible for monitoring to ensure buffered areas are maintained. | No vegetation clearing without written approval. Must comply with environmental management regulation and nature conservation acts. | Construction | Removal of vegetation | Only vegetation within the development area may be removed. Care must be taken to avoid the further introduction of alien plant species.

No dumping is permitted in the buffered zones or in the properties of surrounding Neighbours but disposed of at registered land fill site. Clearing will be done in a phased manner in order to retain vegetation cover for as long as possible. | Monitoring daily throughout the construction period. | Buffered zones should be maintained. | Notice of non compliance to contractor by ECO. | Operation | Stripping of vegetation for fuel wood and building material| . All home owners must be aware of the buffered areas within the site. Sign boards should be erected at the edge of the buffer zones providing importance of these areas.

Residents should be provided with training and education relating to the protection of these areas. Home owners will be provided with electricity and formal housing units so it is not anticipated that there will be a need to collect firewood and building material. | Site will be monitored by designated representative daily/weekly| No access to buffered areas. A conservation line must be used to prohibit access to them. | Reparation and fine. | closure| Potential erosion. | Spread cleared vegetation on disturbed areas. Select the most appropriate species that is indigenous and natural to the area.

Water the areas regularly to ensure growth. | Monitor rehab process for the following year and then once in 3 months for 2 years after closure and rehabilitation. | The area should be maintained to ensure methods applied to be successful. | Reparation and fine| | | Ambient Noise Levels| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time Period| Mon Std| Compliance | Planning | Noise | Identify mitigation measure that shall endeavour to keep noise generating activity at a minimum| Throughout the lifespan of the project. | The site will be monitored daily. Noise source is not close to noise sensitive areas. | Suspension of works. Reparation and fine. Construction | Generation of noise as a result of construction activities and vehicles. | The contractor shall provide all equipments with silencers so that noise level is not above the minimum level required. Construction activities shall be conducted during normal working times between 7:30 to 17:00 on weekdays, between 8:00 and 13:00 during weekends and no work on Sundays and public holidays. Maintenance of vehicles and equipments done regularly. | Working hours. | Ensuring vehicles and equipments are serviced. | Contractor must comply with lower noise level requires, failing which fine or penalty may be imposed. Operation | Noise levels from activities (large outdoor activities) and vehicles| Mannered complaint hotline. Stage to point away from the nearby noise sensitive receivers. Speed limits be instated as breaking and speeding of vehicles generate noise. | On-going activities. | Organiser should appoint an appropriate person to monitor the noise situation by sound level meter at the most affected noise sensitive receiver. | Noise should not be more than 10dB(A)above prevailing background noise level, as measured at one metre from the exterior building facade of the most affected noise sensitive eceiver, during day time and evening period. Fines on failure to comply. | closure| Rehabilitation of office site or camp site. | Rehabilitation through the demolishing of all buildings removal of all facilities, waste and other feature constructed or established during use of the campsite. | Must take place during normal working times between 07:30 to 17:00 on weekdays, between 08:30 and 13:00 during weekends and no work on Sundays or public holiday| Noise situation monitored. | Notice of non compliance to contractor by ECO. | | Soil| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time Period| Mon Std| Compliance | Planning | Identifying soil erosion as an impact| Soil conservation works must be identified and implemented. All storm water drainage measures must be correctly installed and maintained. Keep drainage ways open and clear. Cleared areas must have erosion control. | Throughout the project| Contractor shall as an ongoing exercise implement erosion and sedimentation control measures to the satisfactory of the ECO.

Ensure that the buffered areas are clearly demarcated and these are not impacted on as a result of erosion and sedimentation| Suspension of works, reparation and fine. | construction| Risk of erosion during construction. | Stabilization of cleared areas to prevent and control erosion and/or sedimentation must be managed. Installing temporary and permanent drainage works. Take measures to prevent storm water concentrating in the river and scouring slopes, banks| Throughout the lifespan of the project. | Traffic and movement over stabilized areas must be restricted and controlled. Notice of non compliance to contractor by ECO| Operation | On site erosion of exposed soil| Any erosion channels developed during construction shall be back filled and compacted and the areas restored to a proper condition similar to the condition before erosion occurrence. The buffered area must be strictly maintained. | To satisfactory of ECO. | Monitor and manage site. | Notice of non compliance to contractor by ECO. | closure| Potential erosion| Re-vegetate with suitable plant species. | Monitor rehab process for the following year and then once a month for 1 year after closure and rehabilitation. | fine and no closure certificate| | | Ground water| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time Period| Mon Std| Compliance | Planning | Identifying ground water as an impact| Identifying mitigation measure. | Identifying frequency. | The site will be monitored daily. | Reparation | Construction | Contamination of ground water by cement. | Runoff batching areas shall be strictly controlled. Cement contaminated water shall be collected, stored and disposed of at a registered landfill site authorized to deal with these substances. Contaminated water will not be allowed to overflow. Daily basis| The storage system shall be completely closed system. | Suspension of works and fine| Operation | Unused cement bags and used cement bags| Unused cement bags shall be stored out of the rain where run off won’t affect them. Used cement bags shall be collected and stored in weather proof containers to prevent wind-blown cement dust and water contamination. Used cement bags shall not be used for any other purpose and shall be disposed of at a registered site. | Daily and throughout the lifespan of project. | Have a cleanup session once a week. | Comply with ground water regulations. Closure | Excess concrete| All excess concrete shall be removed from site and disposed at a registered landfill. Washing of the excess concrete into the ground is not allowed. | | Do not burry excess concrete. | Failure to comply may result in penalty and no closure certificate. | | | Sites of archaeological and cultural interest| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time Period | Mon Std| Compliance | Planning | Identifying cultural and heritage features. | There were 5 gravesites identified within the site. According to heritage specialist the human remains are older than 60yrs outside formal cemetry.

A recognized institution declared under the National Heritage Resource Act with respect for customs and beliefs of affected relatives and where requested, in the presence of relatives and community representatives | 8 weeks for required notices and apply for the relevant burial grounds and grave permits and clearances interfere or relocate the graves. 3 weeks for actual exhumation, relocation and re-interment processes. Time to ensure consent for families affected. | This will be handled by a registered institution declared under the National Heritage Resource Act (Act 25 of 1995) with espect for customs and beliefs of affected relatives, in their presence and / or community representatives. | Contractor will move graves with permit using a registered institution under the National Heritage Resource Act. | Construction | Discovery of graves or any cultural or historical significance feature previously unknown. | Cease activity and report the discovery to the responsible heritage resources authority which must inco-operation with the police service and in accordance with regulations of the responsible heritage resource authority carry out an investigation. Until further notice. | This will be handled by a registered institution declared under the National Heritage Resource Act (Act 25 of 1995) with respect for customs and beliefs of affected relatives, in their presence and / or community representatives| The exhuming, removal, disturbance or destruction of the site must be authorised by SAHRA in terms of the National Heritage Resource Act (Act 25 of 1995) | Operation| Archaeological objects within the site| The home owners should be made aware of how archaeological objects may look like. Representative must monitor site daily/weekly. | Residential Engineer and ECO will be responsible for monitoring. | Compliance against the EMPr monitored by the ECO. | Closure | Archaeology | Preserve cultural sites and objects worthy of conservation| | | | | | Surface water| | | | | Impact | Mitigation | Time Period| Mon Std| Compliance | Planning | Identify Contamination of the Vaal river as an impact. | Instate buffer zones around the river. Protection of buffer zone from erosion, direct or indirect spills of pollutants| Once a week and throughout lifespan of project. Clear conservation line or fence still intact and no evidence of entry into area. | Suspension of works, reparation and fine. | Construction | Contamination of the Vaal river and usage of the water. | No construction activities are to be permitted in the buffered zone areas. In the event of spill, the contractor must take prompt action to clean polluted areas and prevent spreading of the pollutants. Contractor may arrange for professional service providers to clean affected areas. If water from the Vaal is to be used it must not exceed 50000 litres for a day. | Throughout lifespan of project. Conservation line or fence still intact and no evidence of entry into area. | Suspension of works, reparation and fine. | Operation| Drawing water from Vaal river and use of buffer zone for dumping. | Home owners must be aware of the buffered zone and must not be used as a dumping site. Abstraction from the river for domestic use is restricted. | Once a week and throughout lifespan of project. | Conservation line or fence still intact and no evidence of entry into area. | Suspension of works, reparation and fine. | Closure| Exposed river banks| Re-vegetate exposed river banks. Monitor rehab process for the following year and then once a month for 2 years after closure and rehab. | No access to buffer areas. Monitor re-vegetation weekly. | Reparation, fine and no closure certificate. | 1. 1. 5 Reference www. em. com/PageFiles/5438/Burgan_EMP_02TM. pdffile[accessed September 18, 2012] www. KwiKwap. co. za/… /[accessed September 18, 2012] Question 1. 2 Table of contentsPage 1. 2. 1 Introduction19 1. 2. 2 Cattle feedlot19 1. 2. 3 Management objectives19 1. 2. 4 Monitoring objectives20 1. 2. 5 Scope of monitoring20 1. 2. Monitoring technology20 1. 2. 7 Information collected and decision making21 1. 2. 8 Spatial boundaries, map scales and sites for observation measurements or sampling21 1. 2. 9 Key indicators21 1. 2. 10 Data analysis and presentation interpretation22 1. 2. 11 Historical data and contemporary data23 1. 2. 12 Conclusion23 1. 2. 13 Reference24 Question 1. 2 1. 2. 1 Introduction Environmental monitoring programme can be defined as an activity undertaken to provide specific information on the characteristics and functions of environment and social variables in space and time.

Environmental monitoring ensures that impacts do not exceed the legal standards, it also checks if the implementation of mitigation measures is practiced as described in the Environmental Management Plan (http://www. unescap. org/drpad/vc/orientation/M88. htm). Environmental monitoring is used in . the preparation of environmental impact assessment as well as in human activities that carry risk of harmful effects on the environment. 1. 2. 2 Feedlot This is a managing system in which naturally grazing animals are confined to a small area which produces no feed and are fed on stored feeds.

The primary difference between feedlot and free range cattle is that food is brought to the animal instead of the animal moving to the food. Cattle are not born, raised and shipped from feedlots. Instead, feedlots are typically where cattle end up before they are shipped to a packing or processing plant. Most cattle spend a great deal of their life on pasture land of some kind. However, when a cow or steer is getting close to being ready to ship, it can be difficult for a farmer to get that cow to market weight, especially in years where pasture conditions are less than ideal.

Feedlots overcome this problem by bringing food to the cattle (www. agromedia. ca/AFMG/… /3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf). 1. 2. 3 Management objectives For monitoring programme to be effective and be able to achieve its goals it must include the overall objectives of the organization, references to the specific strategies that help deliver the objectives and details of specific project or task within those strategies. All projects should have identified goals.

The monitoring of a project should be designed to determine if the project is functioning as planned and to test progress toward the project goals (http://www. coastal science. noaa. gov/documents/restorationmntg_dev. pdf). Management objectives of feedlots include; * To achieve a rapid growth rate with acceptable fat within acceptable slaughter weigh range. * Production of beef free of chemical residues. * To maximize feed conversion efficiency * Avoid unnecessary use of vaccines, anthelminties and prophylactic antimicrobials (www. agromedia. ca/AFMG/… 3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf). 1. 2. 4 Monitoring objectives All agreed objectives for monitoring programmes should be clearly, they must be concise, meaningful and achievable. They must clearly identify what needs to be achieved over a certain time period. The objectives must always be meaningful or understood by all parties that will be involved from designing, implementing the monitoring programme to the senior managers who may need to take action as a result of the findings of the monitoring programmes (http:www. en. environmental. nsw. gov. au/air/nepm/3. tm). The following is an example for feedlot objectives: * To switch the animals to different diets for the most suitable one. * Reduce dust emissions. * Maintain clean dry pens. * Cattle should have access to good quality water (www. agromedia. ca/AFMG/… /3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf). 1. 2. 5 Scoping the monitoring programme Scoping describes the preparatory work that is necessary prior to undertaking any monitoring programme. It is important to undertake this step in a thorough manner to ensure that an effective monitoring programme can be developed.

The scope should include what is being monitored, how monitoring will be carried out and the time scale over which it will take or happen. The monitoring programme must provide the location, dates (http://www. en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Environmental… ). In a feedlot when monitoring heat load you need to monitor vulnerable cattle which is cattle that is heavily finished, newly arrive, hospitalized and that which is black. The respiration and panting is assessed by feedlot personnel before 8. 00a. m then at two hourly intervals until at least 6. 00p. m (www. ir. sa. gov. au/Livestock/beef_cattle/guidelines_for feedlots). 1. 2. 6 Monitoring technology. * This is monitoring equipment; it could be GIS, remote sensing etc. For controlling weight of cattle an electronic weight control is used. This is a system to track feeding habits and weight gain of feedlot cattle being readied for market, each cattle is fitted with a transponder placed in the ear like a number tag. In order to reach the feed through in the pen the steer must first walk through a gate over a scale. As it does so an antenna detects the i. . number of the transponder, then the electronic scale records the weight of that animal in its computer “account”. When the steer approaches another feeding through, an opening monitored by another antenna records the i. d. number. Using before and after weights of through, the system determines how much feed the animal has consumed. This allows the production manager to record the feed consumption and weight gain of each steer in the pen (www. agromedia. ca/AFMG/… /3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf). 1. 2. 7 Information collected and decision making

Data collected is intended to provide decision makers with sound scientific information from which the environmental management decisions are made. The programme should consider if the data and the results of the monitoring are providing information that was envisaged in the original design. * To tell that cattle are consuming the appropriate diet that is significant levels of roughage you observe their stools. Flat brown stools indicate that the cattle are consuming a higher amount of grain but are not incurring digestive upsets. Flat gray stools are a sign of acidosis (www. gromedia. ca/AFMG/… /3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf). 1. 2. 8 Spatial boundaries, map scales, observation sites measurement and sampling A map should be constructed that indicates where the activities will take place or where the data will be collected. The map should the parameters for example if the information required is about soil quality the map must have or show places of erosion, footpaths, roads, and grazing lands, cultivated areas. The map could be conventional drawing or generated by Geographical Information System (DEAT, 1998).

The monitoring programme must determine the monitoring sites or collection areas which should be based on the location of the activities causing the impact, areas that are most likely to be affected and locations where integrated measurements would assist in gaining understanding. The type of sampling method that will be used must be precise and be clearly stated as there is a wide range of sampling methods, this also include the material being sampled and analysis of the samples (Canter,2002).

Sampling methods may range from simpler to complex depending on the project that that is studied, a simple quadrant can be used for soil sample sites where you can use a random sampling or systemic sampling method and for a large and complex, a Geographic Information System (GIS) can be used. Another example could be the use of grab samples which are samples taken from a homogenous material e. g. water (Jugie, 2005) 1. 2. 9 Key indicators for direct measurement,observation or sampling. According to Jugie (2005) ‘an indicator is defined as signs or symptoms of changes which may be caused by a number of factors in an environmental feature’.

Indicators may include: soil quality, vegetation quality, air quality, solid and liquid waste etc. It is important to identify the appropriate indicators and the parameters that will be monitored to assess the magnitude of impacts because several parameters may be indicative of a particular impact. The selection of any indicator should be based on its utility for decision making, planning, regulation and enforcement. Figure 1 below is showing examples of indicators and parameters, which shows the cattle’s response to heat load. (Figure 2) Respiration rate and panting score due to heat load.

Panting scores from o (normal) to 4. 5 (severely stressed) Breathing condition| Panting score| * No panting-normal * Slightest panting, mouth closed, no drool or foam present * Fast panting, drool or foam present * Fast panting, drool or foam present with occasional open mouth * Open mouth and some drooling, neck extended and head usually up * Open mouth and some drooling, neck extended and head usually up, tongue slightly out * Open mouth with tongue, with drooling, neck extended and head up * Open mouth with tongue out, with drooling, neck extend and head down| 0122. 533. 44. 5| 1. 2. 10 Data analysis interpretation and presentation The data analyses to be conducted are dictated by the objectives of the environmental monitoring program. The statistical methods used to analyse the data should be described in prior detail to data collection. These methods should be chosen so that uncertainty or error estimates in the data can be quantified. Example of statistical methods useful in an environmental monitoring program include: frequency distribution analysis, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, cluster analysis, and principal components analysis etc.

Data presentation should be determined depending on the type of data, a variety could be used which include statistical tables, charts, graphs, summaries, maps, map overlays, computer printouts, graphics. The criteria for selecting the suitable formats may include easy and convenient access to data by all users, intelligibility and easy of updating (http:www. adb. org/Documents/Books/Environment_Impact/chap 9. pdf). 1. 2. 11 Historical data and contemporary data * It is important to collect historical background information in order to compare with the current information; it helps identify changes from the past to the present time.

Background information also helps find out if such information was once collected for instance in the case of odour impacts. Community consultation is important in making decisions in the management of odour and quantitative odour assessment. This will include complaint history, consultation outcomes, and previous practical experience with the activity (www. agromedia. ca/AFMG/… /3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf). 1. 2. 12 Conclusion For mitigation measures to be effective, a monitoring tool must be enforced to see that the measures are practiced as stipulated on the Environmental Management Plan. 1. 2. 13 References (Canter, L. W. 2002). The Role of Environmental Monitoring in Response to Project Management, University of Oklahoma, USA. Definition of Environmental Monitoring Hydropower Project from Nepal http://www. unescap. org/drpad/vc/orientation/M88. htm [accessed September 20, 2012] www. agromedia. ca/AFMG/… /3Dl%20Feedlot%20layouts. pdf [accessed September 20, 2012] Resationmanagent http://www. coastal science. noaa. gov/documents/restorationmntg_dev. pdf [accessed September 20, 2012] http:www. en. environmental. nsw. gov. au/air/nepm/3. htm [accessed September 20, 2012] Environmental Monitoring-Wikipedia the free encyclopedia http://www. en. wikipedia. rg/wiki/Environmental… [accessed September 20, 2012] www. pir. sa. gov. au/Livestock/beef_cattle/guidelines_for feedlots [accessed September 20, 2012] Jugie, G (2005). Guidelines for developing and designing environmental monitoring programmes in Antarctica resolution 2. Question 1. 3 Table Page 1. 3. 1 Introduction26 1. 3. 2 Purpose26 1. 3. 3 Financial provision27 1. 3. 4 Planning and implementation27 1. 3. 5 Drilling and blasting27 1. 3. 6 Earthworks and construction activities27 1. 3. 7 Rehabilitation28 1. 3. 8 Re-vegetation28 1. 3. 9 Demolition of infrastructure28 1. 3. 10 Labour28 1. 3. 11 Conclusion28 1. 3. 12 References30

Question 1. 3 1. 3. 1 Introduction Environment Management Programme Report is a written document before a mining activity; it contains the potential or predicted and existing environment impacts during a mining process. This document must be approved by the Department of minerals and Energy (DME) and Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF). For a mining activity to take place, it must comply with all what the EMPR entails and be monitored by relevant authorities (HESIMMN-2012). Environmental Management Programme Reports are essential for determining impacts of mining activities, whether prospecting or during the mining process.

It also considers the environmental impact over the lifespan of the mine which include mine closure and financial provision for rehabilitation of the mine site (HESIMMMN, 2012). The environmental Management Programme (EMPR) has a number of objectives: it must meet the environmental requirements and directives of the Mineral Resource and Petroleum Development Act and its regulations. It must provide a description of the overall character of the mining area and its surroundings (i. e. Baseline environmental conditions) so that an assessment an be made of the significant impacts that the mine is likely to have on the environment during and after mining. It must describe briefly the prospecting or mining method and associated activities, and the negative environmental impacts will be managed and how the positive impacts will be maximized. It must set out the environmental management criteria, and resources required, that will be used during the life of the project so that the stated and agreed land capability and closure objectives can be achieved and a closure certificate is issued by the Department of Minerals and Energy (CES Coastal environmental strategies). 1. . 2 Purpose of EMPR This document is intended to assist the mining industry in their financial provision by providing guidance on an investment process that can be adopted to achieve sound financial management of the funds allocated to rehabilitation. The document provides a basic level of guidance on the consideration of various factors in order to ensure sound financial management. The Environmental Management Programme Report also include the description of the pre-mining environment, motivation, details of the proposed project, an environmental impact assessment and description of how the impacts will be managed (EPA,2006).

Furthermore, adequate provision for financial guarantees must be shown for rehabilitation, monitoring and auditing must also be arranged (HESIMNN, 2012). The issue of financial provision, mine rehabilitation and closure remain an essential reference point for decision making purposes. The focus on the latter is of much importance as it ensures that rehabilitation will be carried out as recommended by the authorities and for mine to be approved it should have all the requirements especially the financial provision (http:www. uiwenkhoks. conservancy. co. za/documents/whatsnew/12679_exploration. pdf). According to the Minerals and Petroleum Resources Development Act 28 of 2002 and Regulations, applicants who have applied for a mining or prospecting right must submit an Environmental Management Programme to the Department of Minerals and Energy (DME), which includes, amongst others, details of financial provisions to provide for the rehabilitation and remediation of nvironmental impacts, damage as well as the final closure of a mine. The details of the financial provision must include the details of the method(s) of provision as well as planning and implementation, drilling and blasting, construction activities, demolition of infrastructure, re-vegetation and labour which will be discussed (Golder Associates). 1. 3. 3 Financial provision

Financial provision can be defined as the process in which the applicant for or holder of a prospecting permit or mining authorization demonstrates its ability to meet its obligations pertaining to the execution of its EMP. The funds must be made available to the director of the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs when in his opinion; the stipulated obligations cannot or will not be met by the said holder.

The objectives underlying the making of the Financial Policy, are to indicate in the interest of clarity, the responsibility of the mining industry with regard to the provision of funds for the rehabilitation of land disturbed by prospecting and mining operation and to assist the Directors of the Department of Mineral and Energy and other affected government departments in satisfying themselves that the holders of prospecting permits and or mining authorization granted in terms of the Minerals Act, can make the necessary financial provision for the execution of an approved environmental management programme (DWAF,2004). 1. 3. Planning and implementation The cost of engaging specialized consultants to plan the rehabilitation and foremen to ensure the effective functioning of the plan must be kept in mind. These fees should slot in all phases of the operation, including public participation and authority consultation and guarantee that monitoring and maintenance come about for the full post-mining period in the EMPR. 1. 3. 5 Drilling and Blasting The financial provision includes costs of material or equipments that will be used during the extraction of the material or equipments that will be used during the extraction of the mineral and the decommissioning.

Drilling and blasting equipments are one of the major equipments used for mining, so on the EMPR costs must be included to ensure that the contractor has sufficient funds. 1. 3. 6 Earthworks and construction activities The estimated cost for other equipments such as excavators, loaders, graders, trucks are taken into consideration together with other small equipments such as trenches, compactors, generators, or compressor must also be in the financial provision. Expert assessment is needed to ensure that there is great productivity on the use of equipments. 1. 3. 7 Rehabilitation

The amount that is necessary for the rehabilitation of damage caused by the operation, both sudden closures during the normal operation of the project and at finale, planned closure is estimated by the regional office of the DMR, based on the information supplied. This amount will reflect how much it will cost the Department to rehabilitate the area disturbed in case of liquidation. The contractor must have sufficient funds to rehabilitate the area after closure, failure to show the required amount may results to disapproval to carry on with the activities (http:www. bilion. org. za/departments/environment/downloads). . 3. 8 Re-vegetation There is a need for landscaping that would facilitate surface runoff and result in free draining areas. Special attention must be given to shape and or removal of heaps of excess material. Re-vegetation is another cost which must be included in financial provision. The unit cost for general rehabilitation allows for shaping and landscaping of disturbed areas such as re-vegetation which covers a wide range of activities such as preparing the soil, liming, and fertilization, planting indigenous plants, irrigation, and maintenance and monitoring (HESIMMN, 2012). . 3. 9 Demolition of infrastructure It is essential to eliminate all buildings and equipment with excavation of foundation and floor slabs. The cost of destruction can be reduced by the contractor removing and selling waste for scrap value. It is valuable for the mine to compile an inventory of resale or residual scrap value of all plant, equipment and buildings.

However, the practice of discounting the rehabilitation fund provision on the basis of this residual value is not satisfactory to DME who will not employ in sale or recovery of inherent value of any buildings, product or scrap in the event of the mine not being in a position to implement their rehabilitation obligations (HESIMMN, 2012). 1. 3. 10 Labour The final touches of any rehabilitation programme and maintenance are likely to be highly labour intensive. A practical estimation of manpower time cost is necessary and must consist of salary transport, subsistence and accommodation costs.

Labour-intensive, specialist investigations such as cultural heritage resource management and alien plant control should be incorporated under these costs (HESIMMN, 2012). 1. 3. 11 Conclusion Mining cannot take place without the approval of Environmental Management Programme Report by the DME because it entails all details a company must comply to before a mine can operate especially financial provisions. A company proposing to open a mine must have potential to finance all operations until closure and rehabilitation of the site. 1. 3. 12 References Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (2004).

Operational Guidelines for the DWAF to assist the DME with Environmental Management Programme in terms of the mineral Act Environmental Protection Agency (2006). Guidance on Environmental Liabilities Risks Assessment, Residuals Management Plans and Financial Provisions. Golder Associates (2010). For Exploration of onshore natural gas on various farms in Still Baii District, WESTERNCAPE http:www. duiwenhonks. conservancy. co. za/documents/whatsnew/12679_rep_exploration. pdf. HESIMMN Module. Tutorial letter 102/2012, University of South Africa, Pretoria.