Learners’ English Strategy Employment and Awareness in Taiwan Essay

Abstract

The different approaches for self-study strategy or teacher based methodology all indicated the importance of knowing learning strategy when learning English (Hsia et al, 1995, Griffiths, 2004; Oxford, 1992/1993; Wen & Johnson, 1997, Williams, Mobius, & Choonkyong, 2001, Yang, 1993). English learning strategies, although has been widely promoted in the countries where English is learned as a foreign language, is often remind unknown and unemployed to the learners. If learners are taught to learn by themselves rather than depending on teachers’ language lessons, they will be able to manage their own self learning outside school. Therefore, it is necessary to examine the learning strategy to encourage the concept of learning to learn and become an effective language learner. Once the learners become independent in language acquisition process, the idea of lifelong learning is more likely to be fulfilled.

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The intent of this study was to analyze learners’ EFL strategies employment for the purpose of understanding learners’ awareness of learning strategies to enhance their learning. This study adapted a survey design using Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (1990) version 7.0 for EFL/ESL. A stratified sampling of 1,209 learners from 9 schools at the undergraduate level was used in this survey. Data were further collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, and one-way ANOVA. The results indicated that Taiwanese learners usually unaware of the variety of language learning strategies and hardly use them. Also, learners’ use of English studying strategy is influenced by their pervious learning experiences, gender, and other factors. The results provided college English instructors with guidance to teach students how to study through the medium of language instruction and to plan an English language curriculum.

Learners’ English Strategy Employment and Awareness in Taiwan

Introduction

English as a Second Language or ESL programs are considered one of the most important courses offered by learning institutions today whether on personal basis or through on-line teaching. In this manner, institutions are also encouraged handle ESL programs to be able to meet the needs of a growing market of people who are expected to speak professional English.

            Hence, even business administrations are being invigorated to host an ESL program even for their own employees alone. Many business administrators believe that this step of improvement would naturally bring their company great rewards especially with regards to being globally competitive. However, when it comes to the part of the learning institutions, taking this big step of adjustments towards providing adult students with professional business English basics may not be that easy to imply. Certainly, a certain level of motivation is needed to be able to meet this requirement of the growing market of people who are able to speak English as their second language. The utilization of the right motivation procedure is indeed the key to this factor of needed adjustments especially for the educators.

            ESL student come form all ages and all races as well. This is the reason why teaching the said clients of education would not only require professional application of the standard teaching procedures, it also adds up the fact that there is a need for the educators to adjust with the people they are supposed to deal with during the class. They must be bale to recognize the existence of cultural diversity in the class. Thus, this means that the teachers should at least cater to the individual differences of the students as well.

            What motivation could be applied? Is there any way by which the educators could be moved to get along with the adjustments that are needed for the program? In this regard, the ESL programs hosted in Taiwan shall be examined in this paper. This is especially focused on how the educators were mainly encouraged to adjust themselves with the program and how the said motivations gave fine results for the educating processes of the said state.

Problem Statement

            It has been mentioned earlier that there is a dire need of producing or formulating programs that suits the need of adults and young students as well to learn business English for them to be prepared in facing the real business world later on.  Hence, the problem that is to be discussed in this paper is much related on the way that the educators were motivated to make the necessary adjustment for the said program applications.

            The following are among the questions to be answered:

·         How could the educators be moved to take advantage of the current need of ‘producing’ students who are able to speak English as their Second Language, thus giving the business industries higher competencies in the future?

·         How should the educators feel about the progressive teaching strategies that the program requires of them?

·         Would there be progress in applying the necessary points of consideration in the said program, especially with regards to teaching strategies?

These questions shall serve as guidelines for the author of this paper in completing the required data for this assignment.

Purpose of the Study

            The main reason why this study has been commenced is to be able to show the important factors that motivational procedures contribute to the success of different educational programs offered specifically in Taiwan. These programs involve different adjustments especially with regards to cultural diversity as well as age gaps among students. Hence, the purpose of this study is to show that success is possible especially when it comes to programs such as ESL provisions when the procedures are based upon fine motivational idealisms of the administrators.  This paper is also supposed to show the effect of the motivational procedures not only for the educators but for the students as well. Hence, this study is mostly inclined on the cost and effect processes of both teaching and learning as well.

Scope and Limitation of the Study

            Among the measure of the scope of this study includes the motivational programs used among the ESL educators in Taiwan and how far has these motivational procedures contributed to the success of the ESL programs offered in the said state. On the other hand, this study could be limited on the basis of its lack of access to actual interviews which could contribute to further practical presentation of the matter being discussed.

            Hence, the author is simply basing this study on journals and professional forms and books that caters to the needs of the said topic. The sources though are examined to have specific authentication of being published for reading to ensure the accuracy of the reports. The said sources of the study shall be discussed and reviewed in the chapter to follow.

Review of Related Literature

            As mentioned earlier, it is indeed a certainty that the journals and books used by the author of this study are much related to the issue being discussed. The said journals are to be introduced herein. One of the basic factors of success in any organizational progress is the art of motivation. However, motivational procedures are not that easy to apply especially if the crowd to be dealt with is not that inclined or cooperative in the progress being implied in a specific organization. According to Martinez, in his book entitled “Management Theory and Practice”, motivation consists of three basic phases of development:

·         Examination of the situation

Before anything could be started, it is very important to first examine the real situation and how the situation is supposed to be dealt with. This may include an evaluation of the present circumstances and how it could be related to what future results are expected from the program or motivational procedure to be implemented. (Martinez, 121)

·         Consideration of the Participants

Who are the participants to the program or the procedural approach? This question should be considered upon the formulation of the motivational processes that would be chosen by the administration to be implemented.

 (Martinez, 15)

·         Application of Procedures

After evaluating the situation and determining the people who would be involved in the programs, the application of the formulated procedures could already be commenced in a planned way. In this manner considerably fine results could be expected upon completion of the procedures. (Martinez, 16)

            Through the constant observation of the completion of the said phases, program procedures could be expected to become successful. The presence of the processes mentioned in here could determine the success of any applied motivational procedures by any business administration or even educational institutions at that.

            Meanwhile, Don Dinkmeyer in his book entitled “Leadership by Encouragement” stresses about the importance of encouragement in becoming a good leader. He says that: “the main aim of leaders is to help their colleagues progress for themselves and the organization they work as well” (Dinkmeyer, 41). Hence, this means that among the important factors that each person within an organization should consider is the fact that they need to be leaders in their own ways and encourage their co-workers to progress in a way by which the organization and they themselves could benefit much. Dinkmeyer further adds, “there are necessary factors to consider in being a fine leader of encouragement” (44). Here are some of the suggested factors of concern in Dinkmeyer’s book:

·         As a leader, a considerable act of control is needed; however, concern for colleagues is also a character necessary for leaders to have. (18)

·         Motivating people for further self progress and organizational benefit is one of the leader’s most important functions in a team. Hence, this skill should be enhanced and considered a major work for leaders. (19,20)

·         Empathy for other colleagues concern in the motivational program should be applied. Yes, being able to understand how others feel about the progress procedures should be considered by the leaders. This way they are able to take the challenge of dealing with people’s reactions towards the program and be able to motivate them to take the progressive procedures as well. (25)

Yes, by being able to become an ideal leader, a person could be able to encourage other people around him to be able become mote progressive in their own ways. One of the basic reasons why this study has been commenced is the fact that the motivational processes are highly concerned with language classrooms, specifically ESL classes. In this regard, Zoltan Dornyei talks about specific factors of concern especially on the part of the educators when they are dealing with their students. Here are some of the suggestions he mentions:

·         Be leaders and become role models in class

As the educators show their enthusiasm in teaching, the students too are able to have encouragement to learn the language with enthusiasm as well.

·         Make the Classroom Environment Lively

This could include the ability of the educators to encourage their students to speak out their ideas and their thoughts regarding the issues being discussed which should be of interest to the students depending on their age and their races. This would allow the students understand the language they are trying to learn while enjoying sharing their thoughts at the same time.

·         Be Open to Suggestions from Students

The fact that the students also want to have exposure to the language at a certain level, the educators should consider hearing what they want form the class to be able to help them participate more during discussions. This way, they could become more progressive with their studies as the classes continue.

With regards to the direct worker motivation processes, Abraham

Maslow has something to say about the theories of motivation that could be utilized in encouraging the people to work hard not only for their own good but for the good of their organization as well.  According to him, there are necessary physiological needs of the workers that must be provided by the organizations to be able to get the best out of their employees. Among the breakdown of his hierarchy of needs of employees are three major points of consideration:

·         Needs of self-actualization

As an intrinsic motivation, this factor of concern is directed to an employee’s ability understand that he is of some worth to the organization he is working for.

·         Preconditions for the basic satisfaction

Also considered as an intrinsic motivation, this concept of encouraging the employees involves the satisfactory aspects of the employees within themselves due to the work they are doing.

·         Desires to know and understand

One of the important factors of self satisfaction is one’s ability to learn more as an additional knowledge to for themselves from their jobs. True, this factor of consideration in motivating the employees helps a lot in making them realize that they have certain benefit form the work they are engaged with. Thus they are motivated to work even better to be able to gain their benefit from their company.

            On the other hand, Frederick Herzberg talks about external motivation that has to be implied to be able to encourage employees to work at their best. Among the said extrinsic aspects of motivation are :

·         Achievements

·         Recognition

·         Growth and Advancement

·         Interest in the Job

These four factors of consideration helps the employee realize that their abilities

are appreciated by their organization and are used as a reason for other’s to follow their work ethics and attitudes.  With the use of these suggestions, it could be expected that the classroom procedures would become more productive and more progressive for the capability of the students to use the English Language more effectively. Hence, the programs of learning would be more effective and practical for more and more students who are interested to take the ESL courses that the learning institutions offer. With the utilization of the literatures mentioned herein, the discussion of the issue being tackled in this paper shall be continued towards its completion.

Methodology

Participants

This study adopted a survey design as the base of the research. The Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) designed in 1985 (Oxford, 1990) was used as the instrument of the study for the purpose of eliciting statistical information from individual Taiwanese college student about their English study strategy use and identifying the strategies that make college students in Taiwan effective learners. The data was analyzed in finding how students cope with the English learning strategy in the learning process to provide teachers with information on how to help their students acquire English successfully.

A stratified valid sampling of 1,209 learners from 9 schools at the undergraduate level was used in this survey on students’ uses of English study strategy to analyze students’ English self-learning habits. Only freshman and sophomore students are chosen because EFL courses are required in the first two years of college in Taiwan. Data were further collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics, t test, and one-way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient. There were 618 male (51.1%) and 591 female (48.9%) students in the sample. All the participating students had completed 12 years of schooling and had graduated from high school prior to their enrollment in college. Of the 1209 students who participated in this study, 714 were from general high schools, 478 were from vocational high schools, and 16 were from five year college. The majority of the participants were freshman (n=822) and the rest were sophomore (n=387). Table 1 provides the demographic background of the subjects.

Table 1

Distribution of participants by background variables (n=1209)

Background Variables
Number
Percentage (%)
Gender
Male

Female
337

82
80.4

19.6
Level
Freshman

Sophomore
254

165
60.6

39.4
High school
General high school

Vocational high school

Combo
78

335

6
18.6

80

1.4

Instrument

There are two major language learning strategy classification systems which are Oxford’s Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) version 7.0 for ESL/EFL (1990) and O’Malley ; Chamot’s Language Learning Inventory (1990). In this study, SILL is used because of its validity and creditability, and has been widely used to investigate language learning strategy from the learners cross culturally. The SILL questionnaire is used to measure the strategy employment of students by the following categories according to Oxford (1990):

Direct
Indirect
Memory strategies: strategies which involve the storage and retrieval of language, especially those focusing on vocabulary learning, such as strategies for grouping, using imagery, etc.
Metacognitive strategies: strategies which involve the planning, monitoring, and evaluation of the learning task. These strategies include such behaviors as paying attention, organizing, getting goals, monitoring one’s errors, and evaluating one’s own progress.
Cognitive strategies: strategies which involve direct manipulation or transformation of language to be learned. These include strategies for practicing, analyzing, reasoning, etc.
Affective strategies: strategies which aid learners to control their emotions and attitudes. These include strategies for reducing anxiety and strategies for self encouragement.
Compensation strategies: strategies which facilitate learners’ comprehension and production of a new language despite their limitation in the language; for example, strategies for guessing and inferencing and strategies for using circumlocution, synonyms, and mother tongue or for avoiding the topic.
Social strategies: strategies which aid teachers to cooperate with others to learn the new language. Asking questions, becoming culturally aware and cooperating with peers all are strategies in this category.

The questionnaire contains two parts. The first part is students’ demographic information for further analysis on the use of learning strategy between genders, grade levels, high school background. The second part of questions is the language strategy inventory with 50 items which was designed to find out the amount of usage of the learning strategy to reflect the learning strategies that students have acquired. Students will be asked to respond to the questionnaire items using the use frequency scale: always or almost always true of me (5), usually true of me (4), somewhat true of me (3), usually not true of me (2), never or almost never true of me (1). The questionnaire takes approximately 15 minutes to complete. The score from the questionnaire indicates the frequency of respondents’ use of LLS in general and each SILL categories.

Data collection and analysis

SILL was handed out to all of the chosen freshman and sophomore students in the classroom with approval and supervision of their teachers. The data collection was done through the instructors who were briefed about the administration procedures. The students completed the questionnaire during their regular English class period. They were told that the questionnaire was not a test. Their responses would be used for research purposes only and they did not need to reveal their identity. After the data were collected from the participants, each questionnaire was examined individually, and incomplete questionnaires were discarded. Three SPSS quantitative statistical analyses were utilized in the study: (1) Description statistics, including means and standard deviations were used to compute data gathered from the first part of the questionnaire. (2) One-way ANOVA was used to investigate the differences among demographic information. The significant level will be set at .05.

Findings

Students’ acquisition of English learning strategy

The average of individual strategy items ranged from a high of 3.28 to a low of 1.74, while the overall mean for the sample was 3.79, indicating overall low strategy usage. The result also indicated that 30 of the 50 strategies (60%) had a mean score between 2.5 and 3.4 (medium usage) and the rest of the strategies fell in the low usage category (mean values between 1 and 2.4). See table 2 for the list of all the strategies by their mean values. The strategy the students use the most is one of the cognitive strategies – watch English language TV or movies (M=3.28). The strategy that students use least often is one of the affective strategies – write down feelings in a language learning dairy (M=1.74).

On average, students have used compensation strategies the most as the data presented in Table 2. The mean of the social strategies category is the lowest of the six categories indicates that students tend to use strategies from this category less often than others. As for strategy use by categories, Taiwanese students’ usage was as follows: compensation strategies  (M=2.99; SD=1.08); memory strategies (M=2.68; SD=0.01); cognitive strategies (M=2.65; SD=1.02); metacognitive strategies (M=2.57; SD=0.97); affective strategies (M=2.43; SD=0.04); and social strategies (M=2.40; SD=1.05).

Table 2

Students’ Uses of English Learning Strategy

Memory Strategy
M
SD
Rank
1.          I think of relationships between what I already know and new things I learn in English.
2.81
.99
18
2.          I use new English words in a sentence so I can remember them.
2.61
1.00
24
3.          I connect the sound of a new English word and an image or picture of the word to help me remember the word.
2.93
1.05
12
4.          I remember a new English word by making a mental picture of a situation in which the word might be used.
2.74
1.07
20
5.          I use rhymes to remember new English words.
2.45
1.11
33
6.          I use flashcards to remember new English words.
2.63
1.11
23
7.          I physically act out new English words.
2.56
.91
29
8.          I review English lessons often.
2.41
.83
36
9.          I remember new English words or phrases by remembering their location on the page, on the board, or on a street sign.
2.95
1.06
11
Cognitive Strategies

10.      I say or write new English words several times.
3.08
1.09
7
11.      I try to talk like native English speakers.
2.58
1.11
27
12.      I practice the sounds of English.
2.86
1.04
16
13.      I use the English words I know in different ways.
2.22
.92
43
14.      I start conversations in English.
2.40
.94
37
15.      I watch English language TV shows spoken in English or go to movies spoken in English.
3.28
1.14
1
16.      I read for pleasure in English.
1.92
.89
49
17.      I write notes, messages, letters, or reports in English.
2.00
.97
48
18.      I first skim an English passage (read over the passage quickly) then go back and read carefully.
2.87
1.14
15
19.      I look for words in my own language that are similar to new words in English.
3.00
1.02
10
20.      I try to find patterns in English.
2.70
.99
21
21.      I find the meaning of an English word by dividing it into parts that I understand.
3.06
1.05
8
22.      I try not to translate word for word.
2.61
.98
25
23.      I make summaries of information that I hear or read in English.
2.45
1.02
32
Compensation strategies

24.      To understand unfamiliar English words, I make guesses.
3.13
1.04
5
25.      When I can’t think of a word during a conversation in English, I use gestures.
3.25
1.13
2
26.      I make up new words if I do not know the right ones in English.
2.42
1.12
35
27.      I read English without looking up every new word.
2.81
1.05
19
28.      I try to guess what the other person will say next in English.
3.15
1.07
4
29.      If I can’t think of an English word, I use a word or phrase that means the same thing.
3.16
1.07
3
Metacognitive strategies

30.      I try to find as many ways as I can to use my English.
2.58
.94
26
31.      I notice my English mistakes and use that information to help me do better.
2.82
1.00
17
32.      I pay attention when someone is speaking English.
3.01
1.00
9
33.      I try to find out how to be a better learner of English.
2.87
1.02
14
34.      I plan my schedule so I will have enough time to study English.
2.49
.95
31
35.      I look for people I can talk to in English.
2.29
.99
41
36.      I look for opportunities to read as much as possible in English.
2.33
.94
40
37.      I have clear goals for improving my English skills.
2.38
.96
38
38.      I think about my progress in learning English.
2.38
.95
39
Affective strategies

39.      I try to relax whenever I feel afraid of using English.
2.90
1.04
13
40.      I encourage myself to speak English even when I am afraid of making a mistake.
2.65
1.05
22
41.      I give myself a reward or treat when I do well in English.
2.55
1.13
30
42.      I notice if I am tense or nervous when I am studying or using English.
2.57
1.09
28
43.      I write down my feelings in a language learning dairy.
1.74
.92
50
44.      I talk to someone else about how I feel when I am learning English.
2.19
1.03
46
Social strategies

45.      If I do not understand something in English, I ask the other person to slow down or say it again.
3.13
1.12
6
46.      I ask English speakers to correct me when I talk.
2.18
1.07
47
47.      I practice English with other students.
2.20
.96
45
48.      I ask for help from English speakers.
2.22
1.04
42
49.      I ask questions in English.
2.21
.97
44
50.      I try to learn about the culture of English speakers.
2.43
1.12
34

Students’ Strategies Used by Demographic Information

This study also intended to investigate if there were any significant differences in the selection of strategies according to participants’ gender, age, grade level, high school background, and oversea study experience.

Gender

The ANOVA results showed that males and females’ uses of English language learning strategies differ significantly in 16 of the 50 items. See Table 3 for the detail.

Table 3 Students’ Strategies Uses by Gender

Item
Gender
N
Mean
F
Sig.
1
Male
618
2.74
6.722
.010

Female
589
2.89

3
Male
613
2.86
6.330
.012

Female
590
3.01

6
Male
618
2.49
23.020
.000

Female
590
2.79

8
Male
617
2.33
11.165
.001

Female
589
2.49

17
Male
618
1.93
5.995
.014

Female
590
2.07

18
Male
618
2.79
6.199
.013

Female
590
2.95

19
Male
616
2.94
5.348
.021

Female
590
3.07

32
Male
618
2.91
13.252
.000

Female
590
3.12

33
Male
617
2.80
5.960
.015

Female
589
2.94

35
Male
618
2.22
5.950
.015

Female
590
2.36

36
Male
617
2.25
10.431
.001

Female
589
2.42

38
Male
617
2.32
4.719
.030

Female
590
2.44

41
Male
618
2.47
7.513
.006

Female
589
2.64

44
Male
616
2.10
9.007
.003

Female
590
2.28

45
Male
617
3.01
14.235
.000

Female
590
3.25

47
Male
618
2.12
8.621
.003

Female
590
2.29

Results of the ANOVA procedure to determine gender differences indicated that female students in the sample reported a higher overall mean use of strategies than male students (female mean=2.67 vs. male mean=2.58; p;0.05). Female students reported significantly higher use in all six categories than male students: memory metacognitive (M=2.62 vs. 2.73; p;0.05); cognitive (M=2.62 vs. 2.67; p;0.05); compensation (M=2.97 vs. 3.01; p;0.05); metacognitive (M=2.52 vs. 2.63; p;0.05); affective (M=2.39 vs. 2.48; p;0.05);and social (M=2.35 vs. 2.44; p;0.05). Moreover, the female students’ mean for 44 of the 50 individual strategy items was higher than that for male students.

Grade level

According to the ANOVA data analyzing result, the way students learn the strategy significantly differ from grade level in the category of memory strategies, cognitive strategies, compensation strategies, affective strategies, and social strategies. See Table 4 for the detail.

Table 4 Students’ Strategies Uses by Grade Level

Item
Grade level
N
Mean
F
Sig.
6
Freshman
821
2.72
15.45
.000

Sophomore
387
2.45

10
Freshman
820
3.15
11.48
.001

Sophomore
385
2.92

16
Freshman
821
1.89
4.22
.040

Sophomore
387
2.00

17
Freshman
821
1.93
11.99
.001

Sophomore
387
2.14

18
Freshman
821
2.92
5.63
.018

Sophomore
387
2.75

20
Freshman
819
2.74
5.17
.023

Sophomore
387
2.60

23
Freshman
813
2.41
3.92
.048

Sophomore
385
2.53

25
Freshman
819
3.30
6.72
.010

Sophomore
387
3.12

27
Freshman
820
2.86
6.41
.012

Sophomore
386
2.70

28
Freshman
820
3.20
4.00
.046

Sophomore
386
3.06

40
Freshman
820
2.60
3.97
.047

Sophomore
387
2.73

46
Freshman
820
2.12
6.21
.013

Sophomore
387
2.29

In the frequency use by grade levels, grade level differences indicated that freshman students in the sample reported a slightly higher overall mean use of strategies than sophomore students (freshman mean=2.63 vs. sophomore mean=2.62; p<0.05).

High school background

To determine students high school background, three separate measures was used: (1) general high school and (2) vocational high school. The analysis results as shown in Table 5, students’ strategy acquisition differ significant in terms of their high school background in the category of memory, cognitive, compensation, metacognitive, and social strategies.

Table 5 Students’ Strategies Uses by High School Background

Item
Gender
N
Mean
F
Sig.
2
General
713
2.67
3.413
.033

Vocational
474
2.53

10
General
712
3.18
7.745
.000

Vocational
476
2.93

11
General
714
2.68
8.058
.000

Vocational
477
2.42

15
General
714
3.39
8.614
.000

Vocational
477
3.13

18
General
714
2.94
4.382
.013

Vocational
477
2.78

19
General
712
2.94
3.518
.030

Vocational
477
3.10

20
General
712
2.78
10.643
.000

Vocational
477
2.61

25
General
712
3.33
5.657
.004

Vocational
477
3.11

27
General
714
2.87
3.666
.026

Vocational
475
2.71

28
General
714
3.26
9.273
.000

Vocational
475
3.00

29
General
710
3.29
14.355
.000

Vocational
476
2.97

32
General
714
3.08
4.228
.015

Vocational
477
2.92

47
General
714
2.22
3.703
.025

Vocational
477
2.20

49
General
713
2.25
4.785
.009

Vocational
477
2.16

50
General
714
2.51
4.389
.013

Vocational
477
2.32

The overall mean for students who had graduated from general high school was significantly higher than that of students who had graduated from vocational high school. General high school students had a mean of 2.65 as compared to a mean of 2.59 for vocational high school graduates (p<0.005).

Discussions

            An ample amount of motivation in the Taiwan ESL program offerings have resulted in considerable successful final products. However, the question here is, how much motivation did it take before the educators were convinced to take on the challenges of teaching other races with the ESL programs that has been formulated for the different institutions to include in their learning programs?  Certainly, motivating people to take on the challenges of change is not an easy task. According to Andrew Duffy’s report on Taiwan’s learning institutions, the failing of a number of students who are studying in the said country has been due to the fact that the seriousness upon the program that the students are ought to learn has not been realized much by the students themselves.  As a result, educators handling this type of situation also loose their enthusiasm upon the application of the program, which they ought to offer to their students. This situation then called for much motivational processes on the part of the administrators of the learning institutions.

The Motivational Procedures

            Specifically focusing on the institutions in Taiwan it has been reported that the staffing of ESL teachers has been increased in a matter of time to be able to support the existing teaching force with the other educators that are needed to attend the needs of the students in Taiwan.  Notifying the educators on how to specifically help the students realize what they have to learn about their chosen courses have made so much difference for the reports which were once reported about Taiwan. The Taiwan Star reports that in a nationwide survey of some 9,000 high school dropouts in Taiwan, “three out of every 10 dropouts leave school because of boredom.” Good grades are no indicator that students will stay in school, as over 30 percent of those surveyed had high marks. Jim Livermore, vice president of the Ontario Secondary School Teachers’ Federation was not surprised. He stated: “Boredom is more of a factor today than it was 20 years ago because of television. To interest kids everything today has to be glitzy, high tech and showy.” Mr. Livermore feels that some of the brightest minds are not being challenged in school. He added that the “old way of teaching doesn’t work any more. Rather than lecture-style teaching, we have to get students more involved in learning.”

            Hence, it has been added in the motivational procedures the educators need to be educate themselves. This education includes teaching strategy enhancement as well as informing the teachers on the real need of the country of having English Speaking citizens. It has been stressed out that the production of students who are able to speak professional business English gives the country a greater chance of being globally competitive, as their employees become world class. Hence, the educators were able to realize the need for the said program. As a result, the educators were motivated to continuously assist their students to becoming highly competent when it comes to using the English language in a professional level.

Results of Motivation

            After the motivational procedures have been implemented, fine results have been received by several Taiwan learning institutions. Yes, the application of the learned strategies through the motivational programs, which were commenced, proved to be productive and successful for the students who were able to realize the need for them to progress on their own way. Certainly, it has been observed that much of the motivational tactics that the administrations used for these programs were indeed effective. The motivation that the teachers were able to gain during the training programs has directly affected the way the students view their need to learn their subjects. The fact that the teachers realized the need for the program in their place, the programs became much productive, able to give the students the ample training they need to be able to become competent enough in the usage of the English language. This then helps the Canadian employers to be more at ease as they hire students who were produced by the Taiwan learning institutes.

STUDENT COMPETENCY RESULTS

            The existence of fine educator skills, excellent learning environment, and constant encouragement form educators have been able to result to several considerable results on the part of the English speaking skills of the students. The competency of the educators has driven the students to learn more and apply the subjects they have learned to their own everyday lives. It has been more often than not the students were motivated to learn more everyday as they see the enthusiasm from their teachers to help them learn the language and apply the language in their daily activities. The confidence among individual students has also been developed through the educating programs. The process of learning for the students became more accommodating and progressive as it gave attention to their needs and gave importance to their development not only as English speakers but as individuals living in the country as well.

Conclusion

    The study results indicate that Taiwanese college students’ English learning strategy usage ranges from medium (60% of the strategies with M=2.5 to 3.4) to low (40% with M=2.4 to 1) level. Among them, compensation strategies are used more frequently (M=2.99) than other types of strategies. The results of this study also revealed that college students in Taiwan have trained to use metacognitive learning strategies over the years, which is similar to research result among students from countries like Japan, Korea, mainland China, India, Thailand, and Indonesia in Asian (Oxford et al., 1990; Phillips, 1991). The examination of individual strategies suggests that the strategies used by Taiwanese students may be influenced by the cultural background and the educational system. From the information that has been gathered, most of the students do not manage to use a majority of the different language learning strategies. This suggests that they might not know or believe that those strategies will benefit their learning.

When male and female student are compared, the female students tend to use strategies more often. Out of the expectation with differences in grade levels, the freshmen students use more strategies than the sophomore, and use them more frequently. The students who went to general high schools seemed to have learned more learning strategies than those who went to a vocational high school, but the results of usage was mixed with each group of students doing better than the others in different strategies. For further study, it is suggested to do a international between countries. These studies are needed to understand how students are learning languages across the globe, and to judge the educational standards that are being used in different countries.

With the details of ESL development programs in Taiwan, listed in this paper, it shows how much motivational procedures aimed towards the educators could contribute so much on the way the students progress in their studies. The effectiveness of the curriculum of English learning offered in institutions of education is highly based upon the enthusiasm of the educators to handle their classes while being able to meet the needs of each of their students.  Indeed, teaching students with so much diversity among them is a great challenge to any educator in the learning industry. The consequences though of ample training and motivation with regards to the teaching strategies used by the educators is indeed fruitful and beneficial on the part of the students and the economic growth of the country basing from the competency of the employees produced by the institutions, regardless of the fact that they are native English speakers or not. In this manner, the certainties of the employers on the new graduates of learning institutions become stronger and the results of the job done by these students are much globally competitive as they re able to use the English language in professional applications.

References

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